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Glossary

A
ADEMEFrench Environment and Energy Management Agency. A public agency, of an industrial and commercial nature, placed under the joint authority of the Ministries in charge of research, the environment and energy.
ADREuropean Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road.
B
BiocenterCollective industrial center for the biotreatment of polluted soils.
BiogasGas produced by anaerobic breakdown of the organic matter contained in certain waste.
C
Class 1, Class 2See FWSC - Final Waste Storage Center
Classified facilitiesPursuant to Law No. 76-663 of July 19, 1976, classified facilities are factories, workshops, dumps, sites, quarries and, in general, facilities operated or owned by any natural or legal person, whether public or private, which can represent a danger or disadvantage to the locality or to public health, safety, sanitation, or to the protection of ecosystems and the environment or to the conservation of national heritage sites or monuments. Distinctions are made between facilities subject to declaration to the Prefect’s Office and those subject to authorization from the Prefect’s Office after public scrutiny. Waste treatment facilities fall within this last category.
CollectionSet of actions to remove and transport waste to a transfer, sorting, treatment or recovery facility or to a landfill.
CompostProducts of a given quality resulting from the controlled degradation of organic matter in the presence of oxygen (composting), containing the fewest pollutants possible and usable as organic compost.
Composting Aerobic biotreatment of fermentable waste.
D
DechlorinationIn general, the chemical breakdown of chlorinated molecules such as PCBs by adding reagents such as metallic sodium or certain solvents; a process used to decontaminate oils polluted by PCBs.
DechromatationConversion of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in liquid waste (e.g. surface treatment baths) into trivalent chromium (less toxic Cr. (III)), by adding reagents such as sodium bisulfite, causing it to precipitate in the form of hydroxides by adding lime. The chromium can be recovered in some cases.
DecyanidizationA process used to modify the chemical structure of cyanides (toxic) and cyanates (non-toxic) . Oxidation of cyanides and cyanates, usually by alkaline chlorination using reagents such as sodium hypochlorite.
DRICHousehold Waste Incineration Units
DRIRE Direction Régionale de l’Industrie, de la Recherche et de l’Environnement (Regional Board for Industry, Research and Environment).
E
Energy recoveryUse of an energy source resulting from the treatment of waste.
Evapo-incinerationSeparation of the aqueous phase and the oily phase of waste (in certain cases the mineral phase) through evaporation. The released steam is thermally oxidized and the oily concentrate can be used as a substitute fuel in incinerators.
F
Final WasteWaste, whether or not derived from waste treatment, which can no longer be treated under present-day technical and economic conditions, in particular extracting of the recoverable part or reducing its pollutant or hazardous character. This definition was laid down by the Circular of April 28, 1998 issued by the Ministry of the Environment concerning the reorientation of departmental plans for the elimination of household and similar waste. Final waste is waste from which the recoverable part has been extracted, including any pollutants, e.g. batteries, accumulators, etc. It is the result of objectives defined in cooperation with plan designers. This definition hinges on the place and time. Article L.541-1 of the French Environmental Code and the Circular of April 28, 1998 concern the implementation and development of Departmental plans for eliminating household and similar waste.
Fly ashResidue from incinerator plants including boiler fines, residue from dust removal and from exhaust gas neutralization (except for wet processes). These residues must be treated or stabilized before transfer to a storage center.
G
GroupingThe transport of waste is optimized by grouping small quantities of waste at specialized facilities (in general, waste is initially sorted by type). Waste from diverse origins but of comparable or compatible nature may be combined if necessary.
GTPAGeneral Tax on Polluting Activities.
H
HIWHazardous Industrial Waste. Waste which, because of its dangerous properties, cannot be dumped in storage facilities that take in other waste categories.
Household wasteWaste from the non-professional activities of individuals in their home. Not considered as household waste: - Waste resulting from a professional activity, even if generated at an individual's residence; - Waste generated by individuals outside the home
HydrometallurgicalA chemical treatment used to recover metals after dissolving it into a solution.
I
ICPEInstallation Classée pour la Protection de l’Environnement (classified facilities for the protection of the environment)
IMWInfectious Medical Waste
IncinerationTreatment based on combustion with excess air. This treatment can be carried out with or without energy recovery. The European directive of 4 December 2000 on incineration defines an "incineration facility" as any thermal treatment facility, including incineration by oxidation, pyrolysis, gasification or plasma treatment.
Inert wasteAs defined by the Order of July 16, 1991, waste containing mineral solids that cannot undergo any physical, chemical or biological transformation after disposal.
Ion exchanging resinsIon exchange is an ionic process involving electrostatic surface energy which allows for the exchange of ions dissolved from a solution with oppositely charged counterions on an insoluble grainy substance. This substance is generally synthetic and referred to as a resin.
ISO 14001Standards related to environmental management
ISO 9001 Standards related to quality management (International Organization for Standardization)
L
LeachatesLiquid containing bacteria and/or chemicals resulting from the degradation of waste after water has flowed through waste, contained in a disposal site or extracted.
LeachingExtraction of a soluble compound from a powdered substance, through washing and percolation processes.
M
Mechanical dewateringProcess required to reduce water content, thereby reducing the volume and increasing calorific value (sludge), generally carried out using band or press filters.
MethanizationProduction of biogas by the controlled anaerobic breakdown of organic waste.
N
NeutralizationThe neutralization of an effluent involves bringing its pH (through acidification or alkalization) to a set value as required (e.g. between 7 and 10.5 for the precipitation of metals in the form of hydroxides).
Non-recoverable wasteIndustrial waste that is not recoverable after sorting. Some non-recoverable waste may be subject to subsequent treatment.
O
OHSAS 18001 An occupational health and safety management system specification (Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series)
OIWOrdinary Industrial Waste. Waste from businesses that can be processed in the same facilities as domestic waste, such as cartons, glass, kitchen waste, packaging, etc. OIW also includes waste produced by trades and small businesses.
P
PCBsPolychlorinated biphenyls. Oil used in electrical equipment - transformers and capacitors – for its dielectric properties. The main commercial names used for the molecule are Pyralène™ and Askarel. Improper combustion of PCB generates dioxins. This product has been banned since the early 1980s, and devices still in use must be decontaminated by 2010 (European Directive 95/59/EC of September 16, 1996).
PERPurified emission residue: Residue resulting from dust removal and the neutralization of incinerator emissions. May sometimes be confused with fly ash.
Physical-chemical treatmentThese treatments include emulsion breaking, neutralization, dechromatation, cyanide removal, dewatering, resin regeneration and dechlorination.
Pre-treatmentA process modifying the chemical composition or physical characteristics of waste and which requires additional treatment or controlled disposal. The primary aim is to direct each fraction of waste to its optimal economic destination, through the appropriate combination of waste and the separation of phases. (Circular of August 30, 1985)
PrecollectionAll of the procedures for the disposal of waste from its production site, under the responsibility of the collection service.
Product recoveryUse of all or part of waste to replace an element or material.
Pyrolysis or thermolysisThermal treatment in essentially air-free conditions when oxidation is incomplete. In some cases, these processes generate a combustible by-product that must then be handled appropriately.
PyrometallurgicalThermal treatment used to melt metals in order to refine or separate them.
R
Reclaimed wasteRecycled waste which is used for an application other than its original purpose.
RecoveryProcess that restores the physical-chemical characteristics to waste enabling it to be used as an alternative to virgin raw material.
RecyclingProcess that aims to introduce materials from waste into a production cycle in order to fully or partially replace virgin raw material.
RegenerationProcess that restores the physical-chemical characteristics to waste enabling it to be used as an alternative to virgin raw material.
ReuseProcess by which a used product designed and manufactured for a specific use is reused for the same or different purpose. Reclaiming and repackaging are special types of reuse.
RPIFHWResidues from the Purification of Incineration Fumes from Household Waste These include ashes resulting from dust removal and the residues from the neutralization of fumes. The combustion of one ton of household waste produces between 20kg and 50kg of RPIFHW depending on the process used (wet or dry).
RPIFIWResidues from the Purification of Incineration Fumes from Industrial Waste
S
SalvagingCollecting and/or sorting waste in order to recover the products and substances that they contain.
SHWSpecial Household Waste: Includes products or items thrown away by households that are either explosive (aerosols), corrosive (acids), harmful, irritants (ammonia, resins), oxidants (chlorates), easily inflammable, or harmful to the environment (heavy metals from some batteries, accumulators, fluorescent lights, etc.) or that cannot be eliminated in the same waste streams as household waste without creating risks for local populations and the environment.
SIWSpecial Industrial Waste. The definition of SIW is laid down in the Decree of 18th April 2002 on the classification of waste. SIW is hazardous waste other than municipal packaging defined in section 15 01 of Appendix II of the Decree and the municipal waste defined in Chapter 20 of the same Appendix.
SlagResidue resulting from the incineration of waste and from furnaces. It can be recycled for use in public works or stored at landfills. Also known as "clinker".
SortingProcess whereby waste is separated into different categories (boxes, plastic, wooden crates, etc.) in order to facilitate its disposal using the specific processes for each category. Separating waste prior to disposal avoids the need for sorting.
Sorting centerFacility for sorting and packaging industrial waste.
Stabilization or SolidificationWaste stabilization used for optimum retention of pollutants through chemical and/or physical reactions, based on "cold" processes (mainly involving hydraulic or organic binders as well as various reagents) or "hot" processes such as vitrification. Due to the nature of the processes, the waste is also solidified.
T
Thermal treatmentTreatment of waste through the use of heat. This includes incineration, pyrolysis and thermolysis.
Transfer or transitChange of vehicles between collection, sorting, treatment and/or storage facilities in order to optimize transportation. This may include several transfers.
TransportationMoving waste from one location to another without performing collection.
TreatmentPhysical, thermal, chemical or biological processes, including sorting, which modify the characteristics of waste so as to reduce its volume and dangerous nature, facilitate its handling and favor its reuse. (Directive 199/31/EC of April 26, 1999 on the disposal of waste)
TWDQToxic waste in dispersed quantities. Waste produced in small quantities by craftsmen, small and medium businesses, etc.
V
Vacuum evaporationSeparation of the aqueous phase and generally oily phase of waste through evaporation. The aqueous phase is biologically degraded and the oily concentrate is incinerated.
W
WasteAccording to French Act No. 75-633 of July 15, 1975, any residue from the production, transformation process or use of any substance, material, product or more generally any personal property that its owner has discarded or intends to discard.
Waste from fume purificationResidue resulting from dust removal and the neutralization of incinerator emissions. May sometimes be confused with fly ash.
Waste reception centerPursuant to the circular of May 11, 1989, a center open to individuals for the selective and temporary deposit of waste that cannot be disposed in a satisfactory manner by means of normal collection of domestic waste because of its size, quantity or type.
WSCWaste storage center: a permanent storage facility for waste, also referred to as a landfill. A distinctions is made between: - "Class 1" facilities accommodating hazardous industrial waste, - "Class 2" facilities accommodating household and similar waste, - "Class 3" facilities accommodating inert waste, rubble and excavated materials.